Data communications channels are often insecure, subjecting messages transmitted over the channels to passive and active threats (Barkley, 1994). Internet protocols connect various networks and data packets are transmitted over them. An entire protocol stack exists over which computers exchange messages. For example, Web-browsers sent Hyper-text Markup Language (HTML) messages over the Hyper-text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) which sits on top of the TCP/IP stack. Additional protocols are now in places that create secure channels for such communication, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) sits between the HTTP and TCP/IP protocols, so for secure Web-page transfers HTTP is transmitted over the standard port 443 of SSL rather than the unsecured port 80 assigned to HTTP. Together this results in HTTPS (HTTP over SSL) communication. Secure socket layer and TLS are security protocols primarily used for network transport of messages.
The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is a security protocol that provides communication privacy over the Internet by allowing client-server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering or message forgery (Freier, Karlton & Kocher, 1996). SSL is composed of a handshake protocol and a record protocol, which typically sits on top of a reliable communication protocol like TCP. SSL evolved into its latest version 3.0 resulting in the transport layer security protocol.
The primary goal of The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications; this is used for encapsulation of various higher level protocols (Dierks & Allen, 1999, p. 3). The TLS is actually a combination of two layers, the TLS Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake Protocol. The TLS Record Protocol has two basic properties: connection privacy and reliability. The TLS Handshake protocol has three basic properties: peer identity authentication, shared secret negotiation, and negotiation reliability.
One advantage of TLS is that is independent of the application protocol (Dierks & Allen, 1999, p. 4). Higher-level protocols can be layered on top of this protocol. This leaves the decision of TLS initiation of handshaking and authentication certificate exchanges to the judgment of higher-level protocol designers. The primary goals of the TLS protocol, thus, are to provide cryptographic security, interoperability, and extensibility. These are fundamental requirements of enterprise security.